In a world where security threats are constant and ever changing, it is crucial for government and non-government entities to not only protect themselves from external threats but also be aware of the dangers lurking within their walls. Insider threats, which involve current employees, contractors, or business partners, are top of mind for business and security professionals more now than ever.
Insider threats can have a significant and devastating impact on a company's operations, reputation, and financial stability. From intellectual property theft to sabotage, the potential risks are manifold. Understanding the nature and scope of insider threats is the first step towards developing robust security measures to safeguard your business.
In this article we explore insider threats, including common motivators and causes, potential consequences, as well as how to prevent an attack. By understanding this often overlooked aspect of cybersecurity, you can proactively protect your business from within.
What is an insider threat?
The term insider threat refers to the risk posed by individuals with privileged access to a company's systems or data - such as employees, contractors, or other personnel - who may intentionally or unintentionally use their access or knowledge for harmful purposes.
What are the types of insider threats?
Insider threat actors come in various forms, each with risks and challenges. Understanding the types of insider threats is essential for effectively identifying and mitigating these risks. There are two types of insider threats:
- The unintentional insider
- The intentional insider
Unintentional or negligent insiders
Unintentional insiders, though not deliberately malicious, inadvertently, or unknowingly betray the trust placed in them. These individuals may accidentally disclose sensitive information, fall victim to phishing scams, or fail to follow security protocols. Their actions, though unintentional, can still have serious consequences.
Intentional or malicious insiders
Intentional or malicious insiders are individuals who deliberately or knowingly betray the trust placed in them. These insiders may misuse their access privileges to steal sensitive information, disrupt operations, or sabotage systems. These types of insiders may also be recruited or extorted by a third party to exploit their privileged access. Often these insiders act for financial gain, ideology, or disgruntlement.
Businesses face a threat from Black Hat hackers who possess the technical expertise to bypass security measures and get inside computer networks. When combined with insider information these malicious actors also pose a significant risk to businesses.
What are the motivations for insider threats?
There are many factors motivating insider threat actors. Malicious insider actions have historically been for personal gain or corporate or state-sponsored espionage. Some of the most common motivations globally, include the following:
- Monetary gain
- Reputation damage
- Theft of intellectual property
Common causes of insider threats
Insider threats can arise due to a combination of factors, ranging from personal circumstances to organisational vulnerabilities. More often than not, they are primarily caused unintentionally by employees making mistakes. By identifying these causes, businesses can implement targeted strategies to address them effectively.
Disgruntled employees who feel undervalued, mistreated, or have grievances against the organisation are more likely to become insider threats. These individuals may seek revenge by leaking confidential information, disrupting systems, or engaging in other harmful activities.
Poor security awareness, tools, and training
Insufficient security awareness and training coupled with poor cyber hygiene can leave employees vulnerable to phishing emails and texts, manipulation, social engineering, and other tactics used by malicious actors. When employees are unaware of the risks and best practices for safeguarding data, they inadvertently become potential insider threats. By maintaining good security awareness and training, an organisation minimizes the risk of operational interruptions, data compromise, and data loss.
Excessive access privileges
Granting employees excessive access privileges can create opportunities for insider threats. When individuals can access sensitive information or critical systems beyond their job requirements, the risk of misuse or unauthorized access increases significantly. Following the principle of least privilege is an effective way to help reduce excessive access privileges.
All employees, regardless of their position within an organisation, have access to privileged information. Ensuring that companies have targeted, quantifiable, and enforced access control measures based on an employee's level of privilege is vital to safeguarding sensitive business information.
Inadequate monitoring and auditing
Lack of proper monitoring and auditing of systems and data can make detecting and preventing insider threats difficult. With robust mechanisms to track and analyse user behavior, businesses may notice warning signs or respond promptly.
How to recognize the indicators of an insider threat
When detecting an insider threat, it is important to be alert for sudden changes in an employee's behavior as this may indicate a potential risk. Signs of an insider threat can include working outside of regular hours when fewer people are around and changes in body language, such as becoming more guarded. Changes in emotions, such as exhibiting signs of stress or withdrawing from others, can also be warning signs of an insider threat.
When sudden changes appear, offering support and investigating whether an employee may be in a compromising situation is vital to assess any risks. Behavioral changes are not always a sign of an insider threat. Therefore, developing strong relationships with employees is critical in creating a safe environment where they feel comfortable to seek help when necessary, allowing you to better understand their situation.
Another method to spot potential risks is by utilizing insider threat detection tools such as tripwires or canaries to help identify suspicious activities.
How to prevent an insider threat
Implementing preventative measures, as well as tools to detect and respond to potential attacks early, are vital to stop large-scale losses and mitigate damage. Preventing insider threats requires a multi-layered approach that integrates risk management, prevention controls, technology solutions, employee education, and organisational policies.
Risk management analysis
No matter what your company makes or what services it provides, there’s always a possibility of an insider threat. An essential step in a prevention strategy is to consider how attractive your business is to potential insider threat actors. Businesses that offer services to high security organisations such as Government entities are more likely to be a target to insiders.
In addition to the below prevention methods, getting the basics right such as maintaining a cadence of regular security audits, implementing antivirus software, using licensed software, and partnering with appropriate security providers, can help mitigate risk.
In the realm of high security, there can be no compromise. Ensuring that critical staff, agencies, equipment, and facilities are protected to the highest standard is at the forefront of what matters. Organisations can assure this high standard of protection by staying ahead of any modern cyber threats and trends. Mitigating risk in this field is not a one-step solution; combining methodologies via a threat-centric, contemporary approach with a best-practice mindset enables the highest protection possible and will ensure that companies and government agencies alike are always future ready.
Implement pre-employment checks and processes
The first line of defense in preventing insider threat actors is to identify individuals who may pose a higher risk or have malicious intentions before hiring them. One effective way to do this is by conducting thorough background checks, financial checks, and national criminal history checks. These measures are critical in preventing individuals with a higher risk from gaining access to sensitive information or causing harm..
Protective physical security measures
To minimize the possibility of unauthorized access to physical assets, it's crucial to implement robust access controls. With a physical security solution, you can keep track of access and attempted unauthorized access through real time monitoring and reporting.
By implementing competencies and access zones, you can ensure that only authorized individuals are allowed to enter secure areas of your building. Furthermore, following the principle of least privilege guarantees that employees and visitors are restricted to accessing only the areas required for their role.
When considering an access control solution, it's important to choose security manufacturers who comply with government regulations. These regulations provide specific requirements and standards that organisations must follow to safeguard sensitive information. It is also helpful to look for manufacturers that offer a hardening guide, enabling IT professionals to strengthen their system’s security, minimize vulnerabilities, and prevent insider attacks.
Follow data security practices
Following data security best practices is crucial in safeguarding against insider threats. These practices involve implementing strong password policies and multi-factor authentication to secure user accounts. Practices such as classifying and encrypting sensitive data will ensure it remains secure, even in the event of unauthorised access. Furthermore, software systems should also be regularly updated and patched to minimize vulnerabilities that insiders could exploit. Additionally, look out for manufacturers and providers who are authorized CVE Numbering Authority's and therefore demonstrate commitment to communicating vulnerability information to customers.
Conduct education and awareness programs
Educating employees about the risks associated with insider threats is essential for creating a security-conscious culture. Businesses should provide security awareness training to personnel in specialized and high-risk positions. This training should be conducted regularly to ensure employees are up-to-date with the latest security practices.
By implementing regular security awareness training programs, employees can learn to identify potential threats, understand their responsibilities, and adopt best practices for data protection.
Monitor user behavior
By monitoring user behavior, companies can identify any suspicious activity and detect anomalies that may indicate insider threats. Implementing auditing and reporting tools can help detect potential threats and hold employees accountable.
Establish reporting mechanisms and a culture of trust
Creating a culture of trust and transparency within an organisation can help mitigate insider threats. Informing employees about what actions to take if they suspect they may be at risk of an insider action and assuring them their safety is a top priority is essential.
Encouraging open communication, establishing channels for reporting suspicious activities, and addressing employee concerns can help reduce insider threats. Companies that take a people-centric approach to insider threats are more likely to foster a culture of trust and transparency.
What is the impact of insider threats on businesses?
It is important for businesses to acknowledge the potential harm of insider threats. Insider actions can have a devastating impact financially, reputationally, and legally.
Organisations must prioritize and invest in robust security measures. Implementing security training, creating a culture of trust, and taking proactive steps can significantly reduce the risk of insider threats and protect people and assets.
The threat landscape faced by businesses today extends beyond external actors. Whether deliberate or accidental, insider threats pose significant risks that negatively impact organisations. Regardless of size or industry, all businesses should prioritize protecting against insider threats.